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Konu: Essay Types

  1. #1
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    Essay Types

    Essay çeşitlerinin en bilinenleri Argumentative, Cause and Effect, Informative, Compare-Contrast ve Persuasive Essay'lerdir diyebiliriz. Aşağıdaki linkte bu essaylerin yazılış amaçları vs anlatılmış.
    Essay Info :: Essay Types
    Onun dışında bu essaylerden birini yazmadan önce outline örneklerine bakmakta fayda var çünkü hep tip essay'in kendine has düzeni,kuralları var bunları düzgün bir şekilde uygulamamız gerekiyor

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    PERSUASIVE YADA ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY ICIN BIR KAC IPUCU

    Persuasive or argumentative essays

    In persuasive or argumentative writing, we try to convince others
    to agree with our facts, share our values,
    accept our argument and conclusions,
    and adopt our way of thinking.
    Elements toward building a good persuasive essay include

    establishing facts
    to support an argument
    clarifying relevant values
    for your audience (perspective)
    prioritizing, editing, and/or sequencing
    the facts and values in importance to build the argument
    forming and stating conclusions
    "persuading" your audience that your conclusions
    are based upon the agreed-upon facts and shared values
    having the confidence
    to communicate your "persuasion" in writing
    Here are some strategies to complete a persuasive writing assignment:

    Write out the questions in your own words.

    Think of the questions posed in the assignment
    while you are reading and researching. Determine

    facts
    any sources that will help you determine their reliability
    (as well as for further reference)
    what prejudices lie in the argument
    or values that color the facts or the issue
    what you think of the author's argument
    List out facts; consider their importance:
    prioritize, edit, sequence, discard, etc.
    Ask yourself "What's missing?"
    What are the "hot buttons" of the issue?
    List possible emotions/emotional reactions and recognize them for later use

    Start writing a draft! (refer to: Writing essays, the basics)
    Start as close as possible to your reading/research
    Do not concern yourself with grammar or spelling

    Write your first paragraph
    Introduce the topic
    Inform the reader of your point of view!
    Entice the reader to continue with the rest of the paper!
    Focus on three main points to develop
    Establish flow from paragraph to paragraph
    Keep your voice active
    Quote sources
    to establish authority
    Stay focused
    on your point of view throughout the essay
    Focus on logical arguments
    Don't lapse into summary
    in the development--wait for the conclusion
    Conclusion
    Summarize, then conclude, your argument
    Refer to the first paragraph/opening statement as well as the main points
    does the conclusion restate the main ideas?
    reflect the succession and importance of the arguments
    logically conclude their development?
    Edit/rewrite the first paragraph
    to better telegraph your development and conclusion.
    Take a day or two off!
    Re-read your paper
    with a fresh mind and a sharp pencil
    Ask yourself:
    Does this make sense? Am I convinced?
    Will this convince a reader?
    Will they understand my values, and agree with my facts?
    Edit, correct, and re-write as necessary
    Check spelling and grammar!
    Have a friend read it and respond to your argument.
    Were they convinced?
    Revise if necessary
    Turn in the paper
    Celebrate a job well done,
    with the confidence that you have done your best.
    How to respond to criticism:
    Consider criticism as a test of developing your powers of persuasion.
    Try not to take it personally.

    If your facts are criticized,
    double check them, and then cite your sources.

    If your values are criticized,
    sometimes we need agree "to disagree". Remember: your success in persuading others assumes that the other person is open to being persuaded!

    Fear: If you are not used to communicating,
    especially in writing, you may need to overcome fear on several levels. Writing, unlike unrecorded speech, is a permanent record for all to see, and the "context" is not as important as in speech where context "colors" the words. For example: your readers do not see you, only your words. They do not know what you look like, where you live, who you are.

    Hopefully in school, and class, we have a safe place
    to practice both the art of writing and of persuasion. Then later, when we are in our communities, whether work, church, neighborhoods, and even families, we can benefit from this practice.

    Persuasion also has another dimension:
    it is built with facts, which illustrate conclusions. Of course, this means you need to know what you are talking about, and cannot be lazy with your facts, or you will not succeed in convincing anyone. This shows another level of fear: Fear of making a mistake that will make your argument or persuasion meaningless. Since you are writing, and the words are on paper for all to see (or on a web site!), you need to work to make sure your facts are in order.
    sahing likes this.

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    Argumentative Essay
    The function of an argumentative essay is to show that your assertion (opinion, theory, hypothesis) about some phenomenon or phenomena is correct or more truthful than others'. The art of argumentation is not an easy skill to acquire. Many people might think that if one simply has an opinion, one can argue it successfully, and these folks are always surprised when others don't agree with them because their logic seems so correct. Argumentative writing is the act of forming reasons, making inductions, drawing conclusions, and applying them to the case in discussion; the operation of inferring propositions, not known or admitted as true, from facts or principles known, admitted, or proved to be true. It clearly explains the process of your reasoning from the known or assumed to the unknown. Without doing this you do not have an argument, you have only an assertion, an essay that is just your unsubstantiated opinion.
    Notice that you do not have to completely prove your point; you only have to convince reasonable readers that your argument or position has merit; i.e., that it is somehow more accurate and complete than competing arguments.
    Argumentative essays are often organized in the following manner:
    1. They begin with a statement of your assertion, its timeliness, significance, and relevance in relation to some phenomenon.
    2. They review critically the literature about that phenomenon.
    3. They illustrate how your assertion is "better" (simpler or more explanatory) than others, including improved (i.e., more reliable or valid) methods that you used to accumulate the data (case) to be explained.
    Finally revise and edit, and be sure to apply the critical process to your argument to be certain you have not committed any errors in reasoning or integrated any fallacies for which you would criticize some other writer.
    Additionally, you will want to find out how your readers will object to your argument. Will they say that you have used imprecise concepts? Have you erred in collecting data? Your argument is only as strong as the objections to it. If you cannot refute or discount an objection, then you need to rethink and revise your position.
    Popular argumentative essay topics could be:
    • Animal testing
    • Capital punishment
    • Security cameras and privacy
    • Homeschooling
    • Retirement age
    • The use of animals in scientific research
    • Government and family planning
    All these essay topics give you a chance to develop an argument in your future essay. The best idea is to choose essay topics that really matter to you. You have to have the strong personal opinion on the topic you are planning to discuss in your argumentative essay.

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    Burada da essaylere introduction ve conclusion yazmak için bazı ipuçları verilmiş: How to Write an Introduction and Conclusion | eHow.com

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    ARKADASLAR CAUSE AND EFFECT ESSAY İÇİN MUHTESEM BI ACIKLAMA VE ORNEKLENDIRME !!


    Cause And Effect Essay- Neden Sonuç Makaleleri[/COLOR][/COLOR]

    Cause yani Türkçedeki karşılığı “Neden“dir..Cause makalelerinde makaleye sorulması gereken soru “Bu neden oldu” yada ingilizcesi ”Why did this happen?” dır..Konunun neden gerçekleştiğini ve nelerin sebep olduğunu anlatılır..
    Effect ise Sonuçtur..Effect essaylerinde makaleye sormamız gereken soru “Bu ne yüzden oldu” yada ingilizcesi “What happened because of this” dir.Konun gerçekleşmesinin yani sonucudur..
    Küçük bir örnek verirsek;
    “Arabanın benzini bitti..” (Sebep)
    “You are out of gas.” (Cause)
    “Araba Çalışmaz” (Sonuç)
    You car won’t start.. (Effect)
    —
    Türkçe olarak birkaç örnek verelim misal; (Kendi Mesleğimle ilgili veriyim)
    Sonuç: Fizik Mühendisliğini seçtim ve o bölümde okuyorum.. (I’m choised enginnering of physics and studying now this department)
    Sebep:
    Lisedeyken fizik derslerini seviyordum. ( I like physics)
    Teknolojiye karşı küçüklükten beri bir ilgim var. (I like technology since I’m a child)
    Birşeyleri geliştirmeyi ve araştırmayı seviyorum. (I love research and develop smthing)
    gibisinden bir ön hazırlık yapabilirsiniz..
    Kullandığımız geçiş kelimelerimiz ise;
    For causes (Sebepler)
    because, due to, on cause is, another is, since, for, first, second
    For Effects (Sonuçlar)
    consequently, as a result, thus, resulted in, one result is, another is, therefore
    —-
    Unutmamamız gereken kuralları ise;
    Yazdığımız düşünceyi unutmuyoruz..Yani farklı konulara girsek bile hemen geri çıkıp ana düşüncemiz konusunda ilerliyoruz..Ve ikna edici özellik sunarken kesin şeyler belirtmiyoruz..Kesin şeyler belirtiyorsak da ikna edici şeyler belirtmiyoruz..
    Remember your purpose. Decide if your are writing to inform or persuade.
    Doğrudan nedenlere yada sonuçlara odaklanın.Düşüncelerini zıt yönlenlerde de ortaya koyun..Tek bir noktaya odaklanıp sadece onla ilgili yazmayın..Olumlu yada olumsuz sebepleri belirtin.Focus on immediate and direct causes (or effects.)
    Limit yourself to causes that are close in time and related, as opposed to remote and indirect causes, which occur later and are related indirectly..
    Makalenizi destekleyecek alıntılar yapın..İstatistikler,ünlü kişilerin sözleriyle düşüncelerinizi destekleyin.
    Strengthen your essay by using supporting evidence. Define terms, offer facts and statistics, or provide examples, anecdotes, or personal observations that support your ideas.
    Ayrıca bir arkadaşımız da farklı olarak anlatmış..Bunu da sizlerle paylaşmak istedim..
    —–
    GENERAL STATEMENT
    Bu paragraf ilk paragraf olup konumuza genelden özele olacak şekilde bir giriş yaparız.Örneğin”
    alkol içmenin zararlarından bahsediyorsak.”İnsanlar zararlı oldukları bildikleri halde çeşitli
    maddeler kullanırlar.Bunlardan biri de alkoldür.Alkol insanlar için zararlıdır.Alkol kullanmak
    alışkanlık yapabilir” Şeklinde bir giriş yapabiliriz.
    Girişi tamamladıktan sonra en önemli nokta GİRİŞ PARAGRAFINI THESIS STATEMENT YAZARAK tamamlamaktır.Eğer ilk paragrafınızın son cümlesi thesis statement niteliği taşımıyorsa geçer not alma ihtimalinizi baştan bitirmiş olursunuz.
    Thesis Statement nedir?
    Thesis Statement altta açıklayacak olacağınız cause ve effect paragrafların ana fikirlerini yani topic sentence ‘larının yer aldığı TEK bir cümledir.
    Thesis Statement kalıbı;
    A + B are some causes of X and there are some effects. (which are C+D) Cümleyi effectleri belirtmeden bitirebilir, tamamen isteğinize bağlı olarak
    effectleri ‘de thesis statement içerisinde belirtebilirsiniz.
    The causes of X are A+B and there are some effects.
    Thesis statement ‘ten sonra kesinlikle birinci paragrafa geçilir.
    BODY PARAGRAPH 1
    The first cause is…………… (Alternatif : The first cause of X is………)
    BODY PARAGRAPH 2
    The second cause is………
    Bu iki paragrafta olayın nedenleri anlatılır.Zaten size 3 tane cause ve 3 tane effect maddesi verilecek.Essay ‘imizin uçak kazaları ile ilgili olduğunu
    varsayalım; uçak kazalarının ilk nedeni pilot hataları ikinci nedeni ise bakımsızlık olsun.Birinci paragrafta konu dışına çıkmadan PİLOTLARIN NEDEN HATA yaptıkları üzerine yazı yazıp örnekler vereceğiz.İkinci paragrafta ise bakımların neden aksatıldığı ya da yapılmadığını yazacağız.Body paragrafa nedenler yerine sonucunu yazarsanız bu sizin cause + effect ‘e sadık kalmadığınızı gösterir ve geçer not alamazsınız.Sadece nedenleri yazıyoruz, sonuçları asla.
    BODY PARAGRAPH 3. paragrafımıza bir topic sentence ‘la giriş yapamıyoruz.3. paragrafa geldiğimiz an “The first effect is” diyemiyoruz.Çünkü geçiş cümlemizi yazmak
    zorundayız.Yani transition sentence;
    There are some causes of X and two effects which are C and D.The first effect is……….
    Benim tavsiyem alttakini yazmanız üsteki en kolayı ama en iyisi alttaki;
    Having looked at the causes of X the effect can be given as “C” and “D”.The first effect is……..(Bu Transition ben burdayım diyor, bunu kullanın)
    BODY PARAGRAPH 4
    The second effect is……………..
    Body Paragraph 3 ve 4 ‘te tamamen sonuçlara yönelik bir yazı yazıyoruz.Zaten sonuçlar bize verilmiş olacak biz onlara açılım getireceğiz.
    In conclusion, To sum up, Finally ‘den herhangi birini yazdıktan sonra yazdıktan sonra hemen re-state yapıyoruz.Re-state tam olarak thesis statement ‘le
    aynı anlama gelen bir cümle kurmaktır.Ancak thesis statement ‘i AYNEN YAZMAK DEĞİLDİR.Re-state örneği;
    A+B are two causes of X and two effects which are C+D (Thesis statement ‘in birinci alternatifi ile aynı oldu ancak thesis statement ‘te ikinci
    alternatifi kullanır ya da which are C+D şeklinde cümleyi uzatarak thesis statement ‘te effectleri belirtmezseniz bu re-state kalıbını kullanabilirsiniz.)
    Son paragrafımız yani toplamda 6. paragrafımızda Re-state ettikten sonra isteğe bağlı olarak bir kaç cümle ile summarizing yapabilir ya da
    direk re-state ‘den sonra final comment yapabiliriz.Yani nedenlerini ve sonuçlarını yazdığımız olay hakkında çözümler, tavsiyeler, öneriler vererek essay ‘imizi noktalayabiliriz.Final comment ‘te kesinlikle “According to, In my opinion, I think” kullanmayınız.Fikirler size ait olsa bile should kullanarak kendinizi ifade edin.
    ESSAY ‘e başlamadan önce fantastik olan konu yerine yazması kolay olanı tercih ediniz.Mutlaka bir kaç dakikanızı outline(yazı planı) çıkarmak için ayrınız yani aklınızda konuyu hemen türkçe olarak kurun, 3. paragrafta şunu yazarım bu örneği veririm, final comment ‘a şöyle yazarım böyle yaparım gibi bir köşeye not alınız.
    —-
    Örnek olarak birkaç makale vermek istedim..Bu makaleler genellikle araştırılan veya ödev olarak istenen makaleler
    —
    Alkol’ün Etkileri – The Effects of Alcoholism
    How many times have you heard about the consequences of alcoholism? Have you taken them into account? Alcoholism is one of the major problems in society. The effects of this disease are really serious. Many people get used to drink alcohol , and they can easily abuse; that is the problem. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the physical, psychological, and economic effects of alcoholism.
    The first effects of alcoholism are physical. These are the most important because these can cause your death. For example, alcoholism causes cancer in the stomach, kidneys, and liver. Besides, alcohol alters the digestion of nutrients that the body needs to stay healthy. Alcoholism also causes severe damage in the neurons, so it causes alterations in the body movements, loss of appetite, and depression. There are other effects in the body like gastritis and cirrhosis of the liver. All these physical consequences could cause your death if you drink alcohol in mass quantities.
    The second effects caused by alcoholism are psychological. At the beginning, alcohol makes you feel relaxed, but if you drink it in excess, it increases anxiety and causes depression. It also causes family and legal problems, violence, changes of behavior, suicide, among others. Alcohol is very powerful and alters all your normal behaviors.
    The third effects of alcoholism are economic. According to the National Institute and Drug Abuse, drug abuse and dependence cost an estimated $98 billion. Alcohol is not cheap. If you drink two or three times in a week, it could cost you about $1000 pesos or more a week! People do not think about the money and spend almost everything when they are drunk.
    In conclusion, the effects of alcoholism which are physical, psychological, and economic can cause many problems that affect your life in all aspects. Alcohol alters your brain, muscles, digestion process, and other disorders that affect your health. It also can cause you depression or changes in your behavior that result in problems with your family, friends, and with yourself. Besides, it will leave you in poverty because it cost a lot. Finally, I invite you to think about it and ask you why drink it?

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    Persuasive essay
    A persuasive essay is an essay used to convince a reader about a particular idea, usually one that you believe in. Your persuasive essay could be based on anything about which you have an opinion. Whether you're arguing against the death penalty for school or arguing for a raise from your boss, the persuasive essay is a skill that everyone should know. If you want to learn how to write a knock-it-out-of-the-park persuasive essay, here's how to do it.


    http://www2.waterforduhs.k12.wi.us/s...ve%20Essay.pdf

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    Here you can also find some persuasive essay topics: 50 Interesting Argumentative/Persuasive Essay Topics

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    Opinion essay
    Opinion essay is a formal piece of essay writing which presents the author’s point of view on a
    particular subject supported by reasons and examples. The opposing viewpoint is also
    suggested, it goes with arguments that show that it is unconvincing.

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